History of Nepal
With the passing of every new century, Kingdom of Nepal witnessed several rulers and dynasties play conductive roles in moulding Nepal to present day's trendy Nepal. Kirantis dominated Kingdom of Nepal from 9th century B.C. to first century A.D. Later Licchavis took over Kirantis from third to 13th century then were followed by Thakuris happiness to Malla family line. Then Shah Dynasty command the reign. King Prithvi Narayan Shahsovereign is entirely answerable for today's modern day Nepal for he's the one who united totally different kingdoms into one single nation in 1769. In 1846, the Kot massacre light emitting diode by Jung Bahadur Rana backseat the ability of monarchy and created Rana regime a lot of powerful.
In 1950 King Tribhuvan with the support from India repaired autocracy. A coalition government comprising the Nepali congress party and also the Ranas was thenceforth put in with the promise of free elections in 1952. In1960, King Mahendra, son of King Tribhuvan tactically established Panchayat system, that means 'five councils system', by engineering a coup, declaring a replacement constitution, imprisoning all the leaders of the then government and implementing a ban on all political activities. People's movement of 1990 spread out a replacement chapter for a decade of democracy in Kingdom of Nepal that light emitting diode to multiparty democracy with constitutional autocracy. Democracy came with significant worth resulting to incompetent political leaders, political conflicts, Maoist revolt, corruptions and downfall in national financial system. Royal family massacre that occurred in 2001 left whole world in complete shock. King Gynendra was topped Nepal's king once his brother, King Birendra's assassination. With the appearance of 2006 all major political parties committed to reform their past mistakes and Maoist rebels came along side with the support from Nepali individuals and conjointly went on many days strikes to revive democracy.
Finally, King Gynendra handed over the political power to Nepali people and democracy was once again restored in Nepal.
Geography, flora and fauna of Nepal
Stretched across diverse picturesque landscape, Nepal lies geographically sandwiched between China and India. Nepal encompasses total surface area of 147,181 sq. km from the Himalayan range in the North to the Indo-Gangetic lowlands in the South at the latitude 26°12' to 30°27' North and the longitude 80°4' to 88°12'. Topographically, Nepal has lowland Terai Region in the south, central lower mountains and hills in the middle and Mountain Region in the north. On the basis of diverse ecological settings, regions have been divided into Terai, Siwalik, Middle Mountain, High Mountain and High Himalaya. Terai lies in the northern part of Indo-Gangetic plain extending nearly 800 km from east to west and about 30-40 km from north to south occupying 17% of the total land area with average elevation below 750 m including Terai region, Bhavar Terai and Inner Terai. Siwalik is also called Churia Hills and has elevation ranging from 700 to 1,500 m. Middle Mountain is also referred as Mahabharat range which stretched on 65% of the total land area with elevation ranging from 1,500 to 2,700 m. Kosi, Gandaki, Karnali and Mahakali river meet the middle mountain at many junctions. High Mountains range from 2,200 to 4,000 m and are naturally resourced with phyllite, schists and quartzite. The soil found here being shallow resist weathering. Where as High Himalayas occupy 16% of the total land area of Nepal with elevation ranging from 4,000 to above 8,000 m. This region accommodates the eight of the highest peaks in the world; Mt. Everest [(8848m], Kanchanjunga [8586m], Lhotse [8516m], Cho Oyu [8201m], Dhaulagiri [8167m], Mt. Makalu [8463m], Manaslu [8163m] and Annapurna I [8091m].
Places of Interest in Kathmandu, Nepal
The Kathmandu Valley has a traditional as well as modern setting. Surrounded by mountains on all sides, the Valley consists of three cities of historic, cultural and political importance - Kantipur, Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon). Covering an area of 218 sq. kms, the Kathmandu Valley is situated at 1136m above sea level. A bird's eye view of the Capital features the city as an oval shape with the sacred river Bagmati and its tributary Bishnumati wedding towards the south. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is named after Kasthamandap, an imposing pagoda near Hanuman Dhoka Palace. It is believed that King Gunakama Dev built the city in 723 A.D. The major tourist attractions in Nepal are:
Bhaktapur, situated at an altitude of 1401 m, is a home to medieval art and architecture. The urban city covers an area of 4 square miles. Bhaktapur means the city of devotees. Pottery and weaving are its traditional industries. The city lies about 14 kilometres east of Kathmandu. The major sightseeing places in Bhaktapur include:
Bhaktapur Durbar Square
The main square of the city contains innumerable temples and other architectural showpieces like the Lion Gate, the Statue of King Bhupatindra Malla, the Picture Gallery, the Golden Gate, the Palace of 55 Windows, the Batsala Temple and the Bell of Barking Dogs, the replica of Pashupatinath Temple etc.
This is one of the world's most glorious Buddhist chaityas. It is around 2000 years old. The chaitya, which forms the main structure, is made of brick and clay supporting the lofty conical spire capped by a pinnacle of copper gilt. Painted on the four-sides of the spire bases are the eyes of Lord Buddha. It is three kilometres west of Kathmandu City, and is situated on a hillock about 77m above the level of the Valley. This hill is a mosaic of small chaityas and pagodas.
The stupa of Bouddhanath lies eight kilometres east of Kathmandu. This colossal and ancient stupa, one of the biggest in the world, features the eyes of Lord Buddha. The Lichchhavi king Kana Dev built it in the 5th A.D. It is built on an octagonal base inset with prayer wheels.
About eight kilometres north of Kathmandu, at the base of Shivapuri hill lies a colossal statue of Lord Vishnu, resting on Shesh Nag, in a holy pond. A masterpiece of stone sculpture of the Lichchhavi period, this site is a famous place of pilgrimage for Hindus. It is the most beautiful among all the stone engarvings within the Kathmandu Valley.
The ancient Hindu temple of Changu Narayan is located on a high hilltop that is also known as Changu or Dolagiri. The temple was surrounded by forest with champak tree and a small village, known as Changu Village. The temple of Changunarayan is said to be the oldest in the Kathmandu Valley. Although it was rebuilt in 1702, its origin goes back to the 4th Century. Located on the top of a spur rising in the eastern part of the valley, it is 22 kilometres east from Kathmandu and 4 kilometres north of Bhaktapur. It remains a milestone in Nepali temple architecture with rich embossed works. The two-storey roofed temple stands on a high plinth of stone.
This ancient town is situated 30 kilometers east of Kathmandu on the side of the Arniko Raj marga (Kathmandu-Kodari Highway) on the way to the Nepal - Tibet boarder. A lovely place famous for its scenic beauty and tradition, one can have a panoramic view of the Himalayas from Karyolung in the east to Himalchuli in the west.
Situated five kilometres east of Kathmandu on the bank of the sacred Bagmati River, the temple of Lord Shiva-Pashupatinath with a two-tiered golden roof and silver doors is famous for its superb architecture. It is a centre of annual pilgrimage on the day of Maha-Shivaratri. Entrance is permitted for Hindus only. However, visitors can clearly behold the holy shrine and the religious activities being performed from the eastern bank of the Bagmati River.
This ancient city of Patan is situated on the southern bank of the river Bagmati and is about five kilometers Southeast of Kathmandu. The city is full of Hindu temples and Buddhist monuments exhibiting skilful carvings. Noted for its craftsmen and metal workers, Patan is known as the city of architecture. The major tourist attractions are:
Patan Durbar Square
Patan Durbar Square, situated in the heart of the city, the centre constitutes the of visitor's attraction. It is full of ancient as well as medieval palaces, temples and shrines, noted for their exquisite carvings. One can rummage for furniture, paintings, precious gems and jewellery and other memorabilia in the various shops around the square.
The old Newari Town settlement of Sankhu lies 17 kilometres further east of Boudhanath. Two kilometres above this village on a hill is the Vajra Jogini Temple, dedicated to another powerful Tantric deity. Legend has it that Vajra Jogini resided in the site of this temple much earlier than the period of Manjushree's pilgrimage to worship Swayambhu. It was she who persuaded Manjushree to drain the lake that was the Kathmandu Valley. Once every year late winter, there is a colorful ceremony in which Vajra Jogini is paraded around Sankhu and her temple.